Santa Maria in Trastevere
Santa Maria in Trastevere is one among the oldest churches found in Rome, where the mass was celebrated openly for the first time here. The structure and basic floor plan of Santa Maria in Trastevere take us back to 340s AD. Pope Julius I rebuilt this on a larger scale which was earlier founded by Pope Saint Callixtius I as a Christian house-church during the year 220. The church has undergone two restoration processes during the fifth as well as the eighth centuries.
There are about 22 granite columns that were taken from ruins related to ancient Roman buildings. The Cosmati column at Santa Maria in Trastevere is a curious object found to the right section of the altar. The inscription on the altar read FONS OLEI as it is also the spot related to the miraculous flow of oil. A relic related to Saint Apollonia as well as portion related to the Holy Sponge can be found in the church. The nearby octagonal fountain is a Roman original of ancient origin, as it was restored by Carlo Fontana in the seventeenth century.
The six mosaic panels to be found lower on that of the apse portray the subject pertaining to the Life of the Virgin, made by Pietro Cavallini in 1291. The restored mosaics found on the apse as well as the triumphal arch belong to the period 1140.